Active substances: Hydroxyzine
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Introduction Psychopharmacology Bulletin is well into its sixth decade of publishing. During that time, psychopharmacology has advanced as a medical discipline by maximizing research into the biological causes of psychiatric disorders.
For many academics and clinicians, biological and psychopharmacological approaches have become the mainstay of psychiatry.
The profound shift in the treatment of psychiatric disorders has been fueled by new developments that have come in several forms—from novel drugs to new indications for older agents.
Since the last update of The Black Book in, new psychotropics have expanded existing classes of drugs, while others have challenged the well-worn nomenclature of psychiatric agents. For example, the first serotonin—norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor SNRI, venlafaxine, was introduced in 1994.
Since then, other SNRIs like atomoxetine Strattera —a norepinephrine-predominant SNRI used in the treatment of ADHD since —and, two years later, Duloxetine Cymbalta were approved for the treatment of depression, neuropathic pain, major depressive disorder MDD, generalized anxiety disorder GAD, diabetic neuropathy, chronic musculoskeletal pain, including chronic osteoarthritis pain and chronic lower back pain.
Four years later, the FDA approved desvenlafaxine Pristiq —the active metabolite of venlafaxine, followed by milnacipran Savella, Toledomin, Ixel for the treatment of depression and fibromyalgia.
Like vortioxetine, vilazodone has a beneficial profile as it applies to weight gain and sedation.
Previous studies have reported that morin modulates the activities of metabolic enzymes including CYPs 17.
Moreover, it has been reported that morin is a fairly potent P-gp inhibitor 18.
Recently, it has been reported that morin increased the bioavailability F of etoposide 19, tamoxifen 20, nicardipine 21, methotrexate 22 and talinolol 23 in rats through the inhibition of P-gp.
However, these studies were conducted using normal rats not mammary tumor-bearing rats. Studies using mammary tumor-bearing animal models will provide more data on the disease-related pharmacokinetic characteristics of absorption and metabolism of etoposide by morin.
Thus, in the present study, the effects of morin on the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of etoposide were evaluated using the environmental carcinogen,12-dimethylbenz anthracene DMBA to induce mammary tumors in rats DMBA rats as an animal model of human breast cancer.
Tumors that developed in these rats closely mimic those of human breast cancer 24. Other chemicals were of reagent or HPLC grade.
The procedures used for housing and handling of the rats were similar to those reported previously 25, 26. Morphological characteristics of the tumors induced by this protocol are identical to those of the Huggins model.
The whole liver, kidney and tumor for mammary tumor rats of each rat were excised, rinsed with 0.