Active substances: Doxycycline
Recent research has shown no significant loss of effectiveness in oral contraceptives while using most tetracycline antibiotics including doxycycline, although many physicians still recommend the use of barrier contraception for people taking the drug to prevent unwanted pregnancy.
Doxycycline crosses into breastmilk. The best available evidence indicates that doxycycline has little or no effect on hypoplasia of dental enamel or on staining of teeth and the CDC recommends the use of doxycycline for treatment of Q fever and also for tick-borne rickettsial diseases in young children and others advocate for its use in malaria.
It is still a rare disease.
Pathophysiology The spirochaete responsible is transmitted from host to host by Ixodes spp. Understanding the life cycle of these organisms gives better understanding of the epidemiology, other clinical aspects and prevention of Lyme disease.
The Ixodes tick: Is made up of different species, found in different areas of the world. Emerges in a larval form in the summer and feeds just once on a host animal often a mouse.
In the spring the larva becomes a nymph and feeds, again only once, from a similar animal host. Humans can be victims in the nymph stage most tick bites in humans occur at this time in spring and early summer.
In the autumn the adult tick finally emerges to feed on deer, again just once. Humans can be hosts at this stage.
The spirochaete responsible: Is transmitted by the tick. The tick must have fed on a host significantly infected with spirochaete to pass on the infection to man. Check with your doctor or pharmacist that doxycycline is the best medicine to prevent malaria in the country you are travelling to.
Important Carry on taking doxycycline until you've completed the course, even if you feel better.
How to take it Always swallow your doxycycline capsule whole and have it with a full glass of water a medium sized glass - 200 ml.
You can take this medicine with or without food. However you're less likely to feel sick if you have it with food.
It's important to take doxycycline while you're in an upright position. You can be sitting, standing or walking. This will stop the medicine irritating your food pipe or stomach.
What if I forget to take it? It will then become infectious over a period of 10 to 14 days depending on the region. Sporozoites are injected into the human host the next time the mosquito feeds. These travel via the blood stream to the liver and develop into schizonts which then rupture releasing merozoites.
Merozoites invade erythrocytes and undergo asexual replication.
Some of these develop through ring stage trophozoites into schizonts which rupture releasing further merozoites and thus perpetuate the infection.
Others will develop into female and male gametocytes which are ingested by Anopheles mosquitoes during a blood meal leading to the spread of disease.
Description of the intervention Mefloquine has been available for use in Europe since 1985 and the USA since 1990 Schlagenhauf 1999.