Active substances: Norfloxacin
Once the perfect spot is set, think beyond your box.
Interestingly, high concentrations of carnitine are present in the male reproductive tract and particularly in the epididymis, suggesting its crucial role in energy metabolism and sperm maturation.
Hence, carnitine concentration in the ejaculate is considered a marker of epididymal function and some studies have shown a decreased L-carnitine concentration in the seminal fluid of patients with epididymitis.
The antioxidant properties of carnitine have been studied in men with male accessory gland inflammation.
The beneficial effects of L-carnitine on sperm parameters are well known.Model for the RyhB induced resistance to gentamicin during iron starvation. When iron is not limiting left panel, the Isc Fe-S biogenesis machinery.
Moreover, treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine increases sperm motility and viability in asymptomatic infertile patients with ROS overproduction and ultrasonographic evidence of PVE who already received antimicrobial therapy.
Interestingly, the addition of L-carnitine in samples to be cryopreservation improves significantly sperm quality.
Myoinositol Inositol is a component of the vitamin B complex. MYO, the most biologically important form in nature, is a precursor of second messengers and it is involved in several signal transduction mechanisms in the cell membrane.
It regulates seminal plasma osmolarity, the expression of proteins essential for embryogenetic development and for sperm chemiotaxis and sperm motility.
In addition, inositols are involved in sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction.
Incubation with MYO results in an increased sperm motility and in a higher number of spermatozoa retrieved by swim-up in both normozoospermic men and in patients with abnormal sperm parameters.
This was associated with an improvement of sperm mitochondrial function in patients with OAT. On this basis, the therapeutic use of MYO has been suggested in both in vivo and in vitro assisted reproductive techniques.
Accordingly, oral supplementation with MYO seems to improve sperm parameters.
In particular, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study showed that patients with idiopathic infertility, treated for three months with MYO 2 g twice daily, had a significant increase of sperm concentration, total count, progressive motility, and acrosome-reacted spermatozoa.
Lycopene Lycopene is a constituent of the human redox protection mechanism against ROS. Although few studies investigated its effects on sperm parameters, it seems to be a therapeutic choice in the treatment of idiopathic male infertility.
Furthermore, lycopene displays a protective effect against cryopreservation injury of postthawing human spermatozoa. In fact, the addition of lycopene at a proper concentration to cryoprotectant reduces oxidative damage to sperm mitochondria in the freezing-thawing process, attenuates oxidative stress injury induced by ROS to sperm plasma membrane, and improves the antiapoptosis sperm ability.
Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility by decreasing lipid peroxidation and DNA damage and increasing sperm count and viability.