Active substances: Ivermectin
The plots encompassed the space between the rows of passion fruits espaliers located 3 m or 4 m apart, while the subplots contained the treatments with cover crops jack-bean, crotalaria, tropical kudzu, peanut forage and complex of the spontaneous plants.
Pineapple, maize and cassava were cultivated between the rows of passion fruit in all treatments. The experimental unit consisted of nine passion fruit vines distributed in three rows, with the three central vines considered the applicable plot.
The applicable plots for maize and cassava were taken as the 6 m 2 areas between the passion fruit rows, and for pineapple the production of 20 plants plot-1. A schematic representation of the arrangement of crops in the experimental polyculture is shown in Figure 1.
After emergence of the maize, wooden espaliers were erected in rows 3 or 4 m apart with the purpose of training the passion fruit vines. A total of 42,472 maizeplants ha-1 were cultivated in plots with 3 m-spaced espaliers and 44,192 plants ha-1 were cultivated in those with 4 m-spaced espaliers.
Passion fruit plants 70 day-old exhibiting first tendrils were transplanted to the experimental areas at final densities of 1,111 plants ha-1 in plots with 3 m-spaced espaliers and of 833 plants ha-1 in those with 4 m-spaced espaliers.
When the maize plants had developed secondary leaves V 2 stadium, the crop was weeded with the aid of a horse drawn half-moon hoe at the rate of 0.
Seven days after weeding the maize crop, pineapples were planted between the espaliers in rows spaced 0. Three rows of pineapples were planted in plots with 3 m-spaced espaliers to give a final density of 9,300 plants ha-1, while four rows of pineapples were planted in plots with 4-m spaced espaliers to give a final density of 9,200 plants ha-1.
Jack-bean and crotalaria were planted between the rows of passion fruit and pineapple at final densities of 6,420 and 9,691 plants ha-1, respectively, with 3 m-spaced espaliers, and at final densities of 6,157 and 8,704 plants ha-1, respectively, with 4 m-spaced espaliers.
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